1. The general human tendency to overestimate the importance of personality or dispositional factors when explaining the causes of social behavior is called:
a. the halo effect.
b. the hindsight bias.
c. the fundamental attribution error.
d. the actor-observer bias.
Explain why you selected this answer.
2. Jane is trying to decide whether she should marry Jim. She sits down with a piece of paper and makes a list of all the positive aspects about marrying Jim, and then a list of all the negative aspects. After looking at both lists, she can see that the good things outweigh the bad. So, she calls Jim up and says, “OK, let’s set a date for the wedding!” Jane’s way of making up her mind is an example of:
a. felicific calculus
b. “distinctiveness decision making
c. decisional framing
d. the contrast effect
Why is this the best answer?
3. In an experiment by Kenrick and Gutierres, male college students were asked to evaluate a potential blind date before or after watching the television show Charlie’s Angels (which features three glamorous actresses). How did those who gave their ratings of the blind date after the viewing the show compare to subject who rated the blind date before watching the show, and to what factor was this difference attributed?
4. From article #13, in demonstrating the “region-β paradox” what do Gilbert and his colleagues suggest about people’s willingness to endure painful medical procedures?
5. It’s New Year’s Eve, and you’ve been invited to a large party where there will be lots of people you’ve never met before. When you arrive, the person hosting the party hands you a blue party hat to wear and you put it on. As you mingle through the crowd, you notice that some people are wearing blue hats like yours, and other people are wearing green party hats. By the end of the evening, you realize you have spent most of your time with people wearing blue hats. Somehow, they just seemed to be nicer people—they even dance better than those other people wearing green hats. Moreover, a guy with a green hat bumped into you at one point during the evening and spilled your drink! Given your knowledge of social cognition (and despite the somewhat far-fetched nature of this scenario), how could you explain your perceptions and judgments?
6. How do cognitive biases involving the self contribute to the goal of maintaining and enhancing our view of ourselves? Of what value are such biases, and what are the potential consequences of not having them? Describe two self-biases, providing research evidence that demonstrates their effects.
7. Briefly contrast the views of Locke and Rousseau on how children develop.
8. a) What do ethologists, such as Lorenz, mean by imprinting on a parent-figure? b) What observations led Bowlby to suggest that imprinting occurs in human infants? That is, what parallels between human infants and other species did he point to?
9. “For children to learn, we must praise their correct responses and correct their mistakes.” Would Montessori agree? Explain.
10. What did Werner mean by “microgenesis” and “microgenetic mobility?” Give examples. Discuss some valuable aspects of these concepts.
11. Piaget’s critics charge that he made development appear too slow. Discuss this criticism with respect to either: a) object permanence, b) conservation training, or c) Kamii’s teaching methods. Then, describe the Piagetian approach.
12. Compare conventional and postconventional morality in Kohlberg’s theory.